VCE Together Year 12 Non-Causal Explanations for Observed Associations

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Non-Causal Explanations for Observed Associations

Non-Causal Explanations for Observed Associations is a part of the VCE Further Maths topic Data Analysis. It falls under the subtopic Investigating Associations Between Two Variables. This post looks at non-causal explanations for an observed association including common response, confounding, and coincidence.

  • Common response: changes in the dependent and independent variables that results from a change in another variable. This can lead to bias in results or make them invalid.
  • Confounding: a variable that influences both the independent and dependent variable. If the confounding variable is not taken into account in an investigation, you might find a correlation that doesn’t really exist.
  • Coincidence: inevitable events which occur unpredictably and can alter results.

What is Confounding?

This video looks at the definition of confounding, as well as examples.

 

Want to learn more? Check out more of our VCE Mathematics resources here!

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