For many HSC Biology students, the areas of Heredity and Genetics may be the toughest sections they’ll experience in the syllabus, and rightly so! But these 25 HSC Biology Module 5: Heredity practice questions we’ve compiled are sure to make it a bit easier!

As outlined in this article, HSC Biology Module 5: Heredity focuses on “a lot of essential aspects of genetics. You’ll be covering the genetics of both plants and animals and how understanding of genetics applies to processes in the real world.”

We’ve allocated practice questions across each of the inquiry questions, including multiple choice, short answer and longer answer responses so you can check your knowledge of the entire module!

So, what are you waiting for? Dig into the HSC Biology Module 5: Heredity practice questions!

Reproduction
Cell Replication
DNA and Polypeptide Synthesis
Genetic Variation
Inheritance Patterns in a Population

Reproduction

Inquiry Question 1: How does reproduction ensure the continuity of a species?

Question 1

Which of the following most accurately outlines ALL methods of reproduction by fungi? (1 mark)

a) Budding

b) Budding and Spores

c) Binary fission, Budding and Spores

d) Binary fission

 

(Explain the mechanisms of reproduction that ensure the continuity of a species, by analysing sexual and asexual methods of reproduction in a variety of organisms, including but not limited to: 

– animals: advantages of external and internal fertilisation 

– plants: asexual and sexual reproduction

– fungi: budding, spores 

– bacteria: binary fission (ACSBL075) 

– protists: binary fission, budding)

Question 2

Binary fission is a method of reproduction commonly used by protists. Binary Fission can best be described as: (1 mark)

a) A method of sexual reproduction

b) A method of asexual reproduction 

c) A method of asexual reproduction resulting in 2 identical daughter cells

d) A method of asexual reproduction resulting in 2 genetically different daughter cells

 

(Explain the mechanisms of reproduction that ensure the continuity of a species, by analysing sexual and asexual methods of reproduction in a variety of organisms, including but not limited to: 

– animals: advantages of external and internal fertilisation 

– plants: asexual and sexual reproduction

– fungi: budding, spores 

– bacteria: binary fission (ACSBL075) 

– protists: binary fission, budding)

Question 3

a) Describe how the knowledge of reproductive technologies can influence the reproductive capability of an organism, using a named example. (4 marks)

b) There are many ethical considerations regarding the application of reproductive technologies on living organisms. State a benefit of its use on your named example above. (1 mark)

 

(Evaluate the impact of scientific knowledge on the manipulation of plant and animal reproduction in agriculture)

Question 4

Using the given diagram, describe the main phases of fertilisation in mammals. (6 marks)

 

(Analyse the features of fertilisation, implantation and hormonal control of pregnancy and birth in mammals)

Question 5

Outline the role of estrogen in the hormonal control of pregnancy. (2 marks)

Cell Replication

Inquiry Question 2: How important is it for genetic material to be replicated exactly?

Question 6

The process of meiosis begins with:

a) Diploid cells and ends with diploid cells

b) Haploid cells and ends with diploid cells

c) Diploid cells and ends with haploid cells

d) Haploid cells and ends with haploid cells

 

(Model the processes involved in cell replication, including but not limited to: mitosis and meiosis)

Question 7

Which stage of meiosis is pictured in Source A? (1 mark) 

Image sourced from Patterson Science

a) Anaphase I

b) Telophase I

c) Anaphase II

d) Telophase II

 

(Model the processes involved in cell replication, including but not limited to: mitosis and meiosis)

Question 8

Illustrate a diagram, modelling the stages of mitosis. How does mitosis ensure that each resulting daughter cell receives a full set of chromosomes? (8 marks)

 

(Model the processes involved in cell replication, including but not limited to: mitosis and meiosis)

Question 9

DNA replication is described as a ‘semi-conservative’ process. Explain the reasoning behind this terminology. (3 marks)

 

(DNA replication using the Watson and Crick DNA model, including nucleotide composition, pairing and bonding)

Question 10

“Mitosis is a driving force for cell growth”.

 

Based on your knowledge of mitosis and cell replication, assess the importance of these processes on the continuity of a species. (5 marks)

 

(Assess the effect of the cell replication processes on the continuity of species)

DNA and Polypeptide Synthesis

Inquiry Question 3: Why is polypeptide synthesis important?

Question 11

The steps below summarise the process of DNA replication and polypeptide synthesis:

 

Step 1: DNA copied and each cell receives a full copy

Step 2: Information from DNA is copied and sent to cytoplasm

Step 3: Information is read by ribosome and assembles protein

Step 4: Protein is formed

 

A mutation occurs somewhere along this process. At which stage would a mutation most likely lead to the formation of a new allele? (1 mark)

a) Step 1

b) Step 2

c) Step 3

d) Step 4

 

(Model the process of polypeptide synthesis, including: (ACSBL079) – transcription and translation)

Question 12

The function of tRNA and mRNA molecules is to decode information from the genes into specific: (1 mark)

a) Lipids

b) Proteins

c) Hormones

d) Carbohydrates

 

(Model the process of polypeptide synthesis, including: (ACSBL079) transcription and translation, assessing the importance of mRNA and tRNA in transcription and translation)

Question 13

a) In DNA transcription, a complementary mRNA molecule is produced. If a template  A T T G C T was given, draw the base sequence that would be produced. (1 mark)

 

b) During DNA replication, an error known as inversion may occur in which a DNA sequence is cleaved and attached the wrong way around. Describe what effect this might have on the resulting protein that this section codes for. (2 marks)

 

(Model the process of polypeptide synthesis, including: (ACSBL079) transcription and translation, assessing the importance of mRNA and tRNA in transcription and translation (ACSBL079)

Question 14

Phenotypic expression can be influenced by both genes and environmental factors. Using a specific example, name one such case and explain why it occurs. (3 marks)

 

(Model the process of polypeptide synthesis, including: (ACSBL079) transcription and translation, assessing the importance of mRNA and tRNA in transcription and translation (ACSBL079)

Question 15

The tertiary structure of a protein is held together by multiple types of bonds between amino-acid side chains. List 3 such bonds. (3 marks)

 

(Investigate the structure and function of proteins in living things)

Genetic Variation

Inquiry Question 4: How can the genetic similarities and differences within and between species be compared?

Question 16

A rare disease has arisen which affects 1:1320 live-born infants. This pedigree shows the incidence of the disease in an affected family.

Which of the following statements most suitably describes the mechanism of inheritance of the disorder? (1 mark)

a) Non sex-linked and recessive

b) Non sex-linked and dominant

c) Sex-linked and recessive

d) Sex-linked and dominant

 

(Model the formation of new combinations of genotypes produced during meiosis, including but not limited to: interpreting examples of autosomal, sex-linkage, co-dominance, incomplete dominance and multiple alleles (ACSBL085), constructing and interpreting information and data from pedigrees and Punnett squares)

Question 17

In a variety of sunflower plants, the allele for thick stems (T) is dominant over the allele for thin stems (t). Crossing a tall plant and short plant yielded a 50% population of short offspring.

 

What were the genotypes of the parents? (1 mark)

a) Tt and tt

b) Tt and Tt

c) TT and Tt

d) TT and tt

 

(Model the formation of new combinations of genotypes produced during meiosis, including but not limited to: interpreting examples of autosomal, sex-linkage, co-dominance, incomplete dominance and multiple alleles (ACSBL085)

Question 18

A farmer wants to raise goats that have black coats which is a dominant characteristic. He owns a black buck called Martin that he wants to use for breeding, but he needs to make sure it is homozygous for a black coat. He does a test cross with a black heterozygous doe called Amy.

 

By using a punnett square, estimate the chance of producing a white goat if Martin is heterozygous. Show all of your working. (3 marks)

 

(Model the formation of new combinations of genotypes produced during meiosis, including but not limited to: interpreting examples of autosomal, sex-linkage, co-dominance, incomplete dominance and multiple alleles (ACSBL085), constructing and interpreting information and data from pedigrees and Punnett squares)

Question 19

Nick’s wife Maria has a history of red-green colour blindness in her family. Jack, their two-year old son, may be red-green colour blind. Maria’s brothers, Vincent and Paul, are colour blind but her brother, James, is not. Maria’s mother Anne, is a carrier of red-green colour blindness. Her father, John, is unaffected.

 

a) Construct a family pedigree to show the inheritance of this sex-linked genetic disorder. (4 marks)

 

b) Predict whether Jack will  be colour-blind. Justify your answer. (2 marks)

 

(Taken from the HSC Biology Exam 2005)

Question 20

The flow diagram below is a representation of one pair of homologous chromosomes in a cell during meiosis.

a) Identify one characteristic of the cells labelled D. (1 mark)

 

b) Identify what occurs in process 1. (1 mark)

 

c) Identify where crossing over would occur. Explain how crossing over affects the inheritance of genes. (3 marks)

 

(Taken from the HSC Biology Exam 2005)

Inheritance Patterns in a Population

Inquiry Question 5: Can population genetic patterns be predicted with any accuracy?

Question 21

A survey was conducted to determine the phenotype prevalence in dogs that had long coats compared to the number that had short coats in the dog population. He asked his classmates to describe the coat length of their dogs and added the results. From the 26 dogs that were counted, 42% of the dogs had long coats and 58% had short coats. The trait does not follow a Mendelian ratio.

 

Which of the following best describes why the results do not follow a Mendelian ratio? (1 mark)

 

a) The student tallied the numbers incorrectly

b) The length of dog coat could be determined by more than one gene

c) The student cannot determine genotype from phenotype alone

d) The students were unclear as to whether their dogs had long or short coats

 

(Investigate the use of technologies to determine inheritance patterns in a population using, for example: (ACSBL064, ACSBL085))

Question 22

A woman who has cystic fibrosis marries a man who does not have this disorder but whose mother did. The gene for cystic fibrosis is recessive. If they have 2 children, what is the probability that their children have the disorder? (1 mark)

 

a) 100%

b) 25%

c) 50%

d) No chance

 

(Investigate the use of technologies to determine inheritance patterns in a population using, for example: (ACSBL064, ACSBL085))

Question 23

a) Name ONE technology that can be used to determine inheritance patterns in a population. (1 mark)

 

b) Explain how data collected by this technology can be used to establish inheritance patterns in a population. (2 marks)

 

(Investigate the use of technologies to determine inheritance patterns in a population using, for example: (ACSBL064, ACSBL085))

Question 24

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the development of melanoma, a type of skin cancer. The graph shows the rate of occurrence of melanoma in males and females between 1972 and 1997.

A student studying the graph made the following statement. ‘The incidence of melanoma will continue to increase beyond 1997 at a greater rate in males than in females.’ 

 

Analyse the data in the graph to assess the validity of this statement. (4 marks)

 

(Taken from the HSC Biology Exam 2001)

Question 25

Scientists gathered data on a group of 200 smokers for a period of 20 years. During this period, 22 people in this group developed lung cancer, 2 died of natural causes and 3 died from cardiovascular diseases. The scientists used this data to draw the conclusion that smoking causes lung cancer.

 

Describe how this investigation could be improved. (4 marks)

 

(Investigate the use of data analysis from a large-scale collaborative project to identify trends, patterns and relationships, for example: (ACSBL064, ACSBL073) the use of population genetics data in conservation management, population genetics studies used to determine the inheritance of a disease or disorder, population genetics relating to human evolution)

And that wraps up our 25 HSC Biology Module 5: Heredity practice questions! Good luck!

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Alex Gao is an Art of Smart mentor and blogger who is passionate about teaching students the skills and know-how of high school. Alex has a great interest in the field of Biology, avidly blogging about the topic whilst also aspiring to become a Biomedical Engineer. Alex graduated in 2018 and was listed on the Distinguished Achievers list for Advanced English, Extension 1 English and Biology.